Use of Composite Graft in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases Concomitant with Porcelain Aorta: A Safe Technique and case series in Severe Aortic Calcification

Authors

1 lung Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Student Research Committee, Gastrointestinal and Fatty Liver Research Center, Faculty of Medical Sciences,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences,Mashhad, IR Iran

3 Assistant professor of cardiac surgery, department of cardiac surgery, Emam Reza hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Department of Medical Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

5 Associate professor of cardiac surgery, department of cardiac surgery, Emam Reza hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background:Surgery in patients with severe calcification of the aorta, also known as “porcelain aorta”, is challenging for cardiac surgeons. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of composite grafts in avoidance of aortic manipulation among patients with porcelain aorta undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Objectives: The aim of current study was to investigate of use of composite graft in patients with coronary artery diseases concomitant with porclain aorta. Methods: Ten patients among admitted ones for CABG over 3 years showed severe calcification of the aorta. We used a composite graft for revascularization of the target vessel without manipulation of the aorta. In patients with CAD and porcelain aorta, off-pump CABG was applied to avoid cannulation of the aorta. Moreover, a composite graft was used for internal mammary artery (unilateral/bilateral) to avoid partial clamping of the aorta. Results: Among ten patients with the mean age of 72.5 years seven patients were male and 3 were female. The most common risk factors were diabetes (6 patients), hypertension (5 patients), smoking (5 patients), and hyperlipidemia. Four patients had thetwo-vessel disease, while the remaining had thesix-vessel disease. In the intraoperative and postoperative periods, no hemodynamic instability was reported in any of the patients. Similarly, no ischemic complications due to femoral artery cannulation (lower limb ischemia) were reported. Based on the findings, no neurologic complications occurred in the early postoperative period and 12-month follow-up (causing no neurologic deficits). Postoperative evaluation of the grafts via computed tomography showed sufficient patency in all patients. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease, concomitant with severe calcification of the aorta, is a challenging condition for cardiac surgeons, given the higher risk of atheroembolic events and serious morbidity. Although multiple techniques have been described for avoiding manipulation of the aorta in these patients, the composite graft technique may be a simple and safe procedure with reduced ri sk of cerebrovascular events due to atheroembolism.

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